Alpha wave biofeedback training - Research.

Alpha theta therapy in the treatment of a dually diagnosed patient: A case study. Loytsker, Julia V.; Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, Vol 62(11-B), Jun 2002. pp. 5381.

It is suggested that neurofeedback therapy can become the future alternative choice of treatment for subgroups of addicts who are alienated by the religious overtones of traditional 12-step recovery programs. Moreover, such an intervention may prove to be more useful for treating depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder (ADD), eating disorders and psychosomatic health problems. The PKBWNT has been scientifically proven, for some disorders, to be a more efficient therapeutic intervention (when compared to traditional psychotherapy), and is more cost-effective over the long-term. PKBWNT attempts to address causes rather than symptoms of disorders. Neurofeedback therapy works by assisting one's own mind-body connection to heal itself as opposed to relying on the use of medication.

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Alpha wave biofeedback training therapy in alcoholics. Passini FT, Watson CG, Dehnel L, Herder J, Watkins B. J Clin Psychol. 1977 Jan;33(1):292-9.

This investigation evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of alpha wave biofeedback treatment for alcoholics. Twenty-five Ss were compared to a matched control group before and after administration of a 3-week alpha-wave biofeedback regimen on a wide variety of criteria that included State-Trait Anxiety, the MMPI, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List, Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, Watson's Anhedonia Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and baseline alpha. The experimental Ss received 10 hour-long alpha training sessions. The experimentals showed more improvement than did controls on alpha production and two anxiety measure. Contradictory results appeared on two suspicion/paranoia measures. Alpha training appeared useful in the treatment of anxiety, but not other problems. However, the absence of significant correlations between amount of change on alpha and the anxiety measures suggests that the improvement may be due to a placebo effect. 

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CRI HELP Study CRI HELP Study: Effects of an EEG Biofeedback Protocol on a Mixed Substance Abusing Population, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31:455–469, 2005

Abstract:This study examined whether an EEG biofeedback protocol could improve outcome measures for a mixed substance abusing inpatient population.Method. One hundred twenty-one volunteers undergoing an inpatient substance abuse program were randomly assigned to the EEG biofeedback or control group. EEG biofeedback included training in Beta and SMR to address attentional variables,followed by an alpha-theta protocol. Subjects received a total of 40 to 50 biofeedback sessions. The control group received additional time in treatment equivalent to experimental procedure time. The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), and MMPI, were administered with both tester and subject blind as to group placement to obtain unbiased baseline data. Treatment retention and abstinence rates as well as psychometric and cognitive measures were compared. Results. Experimental subjects remained in treatment significantly longer than the control group (p<0.005). Of the experimental subjects completing the protocol, 77% were abstinent at 12 months, compared to 44% for the controls. Experimental subjects demonstrated significant improvement on the TOVA (p<.005) after an average of 13 beta- SMR sessions. Following alpha-theta training, significant differences were noted on 5 of the 10 MMPI-2 scales at the p<.005 level. Conclusions.This protocol enhanced treatment retention, variables of attention, and abstinence rates one year following treatment. 

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Applicability of brain wave biofeedback to substance use disorder in adolescents. Trudeau DL. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):125-36, vii. Review.

Neurofeedback treatment for addictions in adults is probably efficacious, and several reported approaches are described with their indications. Neurofeedback is promising as a treatment modality for adolescents, especially those with stimulant abuse and attention and conduct problems. It is attractive as a medication-free, neurophysiologic, and self-actualizing treatment for a substance-based, brain-impaired and self-defeating disorder. More research, beginning with case reporting, is needed to assess use and efficacy in adolescents.

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The treatment of addictive disorders by brainwave biofeedback: a review and suggestions for future research.

Trudeau DL. Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):13-22. Review.

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Effects of neurotherapy on attention and impulsivity in crack cocaine addiction: A controlled, single-blind study.

Burkett, V. Shannon; Cummins, John M.; Dickson, Robert M.; Journal of Neurotherapy, Vol 8(2), 2004. pp. 119-120. 

Effect of Neurofeedback on Chemical Dependency Treatment Kaiser, DA, Othmer, S, & Scott, W. Presented at AAAS Conference in Anaheim, CA, Jan 23 1999

In addition to improving the success rate for recovering addicts, the study documented significant improvements in the ability of the experimental group to focus their thinking and process information. Moreover, the experimental subjects exhibited significant improvement in some relevant measures of psychological functioning (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI-2]). These gains may help to sustain the subjects in the ongoing recovery process.

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The state of EEG biofeedback therapy (EEG operant conditioning) in 2000: an editor's opinion. Duffy FH. Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):V-VII.

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Native Americans, Neurofeedback, and Substance Abuse Theory." Three Year Outcome of Alpha/theta Neurofeedback Training in the Treatment of Problem Drinking among Dine' (Navajo) People. Kelley, MJ Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), Fall-Winter 1997

Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: alcohol dependency. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1993 Mar;18(1):23-32.

Schneider F, Elbert T, Heimann H, Welker A, Stetter F, Mattes R, Birbaumer N, Mann K.Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104. 

Ten unmediated alcohol-dependent male inpatients participated in a Slow Cortical Potential (SCP) self-regulation task utilizing biofeedback and instrumental conditioning. These patients were hospitalized for treatment of alcohol dependency after chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages. Somatic withdrawal symptomatology had occurred recently and the patients were free of any withdrawal symptoms of the autonomic nervous system. Immediately after hospitalization patients were unable to control their SCPs without the reinforcement of immediate feedback across 4 sessions. Seven patients participated in a fifth session an average of 4 months later. Six out of these 7 patients had not had a relapse at the follow-up. In the fifth session these patients were immediately able to differentiate between the required negativity and negativity suppression, whereas the seventh patient, who had relapsed, was unable to control his brain potentials successfully. Results are further evidence that some of the frontocortical dysfunctions in alcohol-dependent patients are reversible. This could covary with a morphological restitution of the cortex.

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