Anxiety disorders research articles.
A review of
EEG biofeedback treatment of anxiety disorders.
Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):1-6.
Brain Research Center, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA
Alpha, theta and alpha-theta enhancements are effective treatments of
the anxiety states (Table 1). Alpha suppression is also effective,
but less so (Table 2). Perceived success in carrying out the task plays
an important role in clinical improvement. Research is needed to find
out how much more effective they are than placebo, and which variables
are important for efficacy. Variables needing study are: duration of
treatment, type and severity of anxiety, number and type of EEG
waveforms used, pretreatment with other kinds of feedback, position and
number of electrodes, and presence of concomitant medication.
treatments of generalized anxiety disorder: preliminary results.
Rice KM, Blanchard EB, Purcell M.
Biofeedback Self Regul. 1993 Jun;18(2):93-105.
State University of New York, Albany.
Forty-five individuals with generalized anxiety (38 with GAD as defined
by DSM-III) were randomized to 4 treatment conditions or a waiting list
control. Patients received 8 sessions of either frontal EMG
biofeedback, biofeedback to increase EEG alpha, biofeedback to decrease
EEG alpha, or a pseudomeditation control condition. All treated
subjects showed significant reductions in STAI-Trait Anxiety and
psychophysiologic symptoms on the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist. Only
alpha-increase biofeedback subjects showed significant reductions in
heart rate reactivity to stressors at a separate psychophysiological
testing session. Decreased self-report of anxiety was maintained at 6
Chronic Anxiety Disorder with Neurotherapy: A Case Study
Thomas JE Ph.D. and Sattlberger E B.A.
The objective of the present case study is to report the effects of
alpha-decrease biofeedback training on a patient diagnosed with Anxiety
Disorder Three Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories (MMPI and
MMPI-2) were used as objective measures of treatment efficacy.
Following 15 sessions of slow wave inhibit/fast wave increase EEG
feedback training, the patient reported a significant reduction in
Hardt JV, Kamiya J.
Science. 1978 Jul 7;201(4350):79-81.
Subjects who were either high or low in trait anxiety used alpha
feedback to increase and to decrease their electroencephalographic
alpha activity. The alpha changes were tightly linked to anxiety
changes, but only in high anxiety subjects (for whom anxiety was
reduced in proportion to alpha increases, and was increased in
proportion to alpha suppression). Low trait-anxiety subjects were
superior at both enhancement and suppression training, but their alpha
changes were not related to anxiety changes. In both groups, anxiety
changes were generally unrelated to either resting levels or changes in
frontalis electromyograms and respiration rate. These results suggest
that long-term alpha feedback training (at least 5 hours) may be useful
in anxiety therapy.
on depression and Neurofeedbcak
brainwave training research articles