Anxiety disorders research articles.

A review of EEG biofeedback treatment of anxiety disorders.

Moore NC.

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):1-6.
Brain Research Center, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA 31207, USA.

Alpha, theta and alpha-theta enhancements are effective treatments of the anxiety states (Table 1). Alpha suppression is also effective, but less so (Table 2). Perceived success in carrying out the task plays an important role in clinical improvement. Research is needed to find out how much more effective they are than placebo, and which variables are important for efficacy. Variables needing study are: duration of treatment, type and severity of anxiety, number and type of EEG waveforms used, pretreatment with other kinds of feedback, position and number of electrodes, and presence of concomitant medication.

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Biofeedback treatments of generalized anxiety disorder: preliminary results.

Rice KM, Blanchard EB, Purcell M.

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1993 Jun;18(2):93-105.
State University of New York, Albany.

Forty-five individuals with generalized anxiety (38 with GAD as defined by DSM-III) were randomized to 4 treatment conditions or a waiting list control. Patients received 8 sessions of either frontal EMG biofeedback, biofeedback to increase EEG alpha, biofeedback to decrease EEG alpha, or a pseudomeditation control condition. All treated subjects showed significant reductions in STAI-Trait Anxiety and psychophysiologic symptoms on the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist. Only alpha-increase biofeedback subjects showed significant reductions in heart rate reactivity to stressors at a separate psychophysiological testing session. Decreased self-report of anxiety was maintained at 6 weeks posttreatment.

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Treatment of Chronic Anxiety Disorder with Neurotherapy: A Case Study

Thomas JE Ph.D. and Sattlberger E B.A.

The objective of the present case study is to report the effects of alpha-decrease biofeedback training on a patient diagnosed with Anxiety Disorder Three Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories (MMPI and MMPI-2) were used as objective measures of treatment efficacy. Following 15 sessions of slow wave inhibit/fast wave increase EEG feedback training, the patient reported a significant reduction in anxiety-related symptoms.

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Hardt JV, Kamiya J.
Science. 1978 Jul 7;201(4350):79-81.

Subjects who were either high or low in trait anxiety used alpha feedback to increase and to decrease their electroencephalographic alpha activity. The alpha changes were tightly linked to anxiety changes, but only in high anxiety subjects (for whom anxiety was reduced in proportion to alpha increases, and was increased in proportion to alpha suppression). Low trait-anxiety subjects were superior at both enhancement and suppression training, but their alpha changes were not related to anxiety changes. In both groups, anxiety changes were generally unrelated to either resting levels or changes in frontalis electromyograms and respiration rate. These results suggest that long-term alpha feedback training (at least 5 hours) may be useful in anxiety therapy.

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Research on depression and Neurofeedbcak

Alpha-theta brainwave training research articles